In the previous article I explained what the Inversion of Control principle is, then I introduced the concept of Inversion of Flow control. In this article I will illustrate how to apply it properly, even without using an IoC container. In order to do so, I will talk about Entity Component System design. While apparently it has nothing to do with Inversion Of Control, I found it to be one of the best way to apply the principle.

Once upon the time, there was the concept of game engine. A game engine was a game-specialized framework that was supposed to run whatever game. This game engine used to have some common classes, designed as sort of “managers”, that were found more or less in all the game engines, like the Render class. Every time a new object with a Renderer was created, the Renderer component of the object was added to a list of Renderers managed by the Render class. This was also true for other components like the Collision component, the Culling component and so on. The Engine dictates when to execute the culling, when to execute the collisions and when to execute the rendering. The less abstracted objects don’t know when they will be rendered or culled, they assume only that at a given point it will happen.

The game engine was taking the control of the flow, resulting in the first form of Inversion of Flow Control. There is no difference with what I just explained and what Unity engine does. Unity decides when is time to call Awake, Starts, Update and so on. Unity framework is capable to achieve both Inversion of Creation Control and Inversion of Flow Control. MonoBehaviour instances cannot be directly created by the users; either if they are already present in the scene or they are created dynamically, it’s Unity to create them for us. The Inversion of Flow control is instead achieved through the adoption of the Strategy Pattern. Our MonoBehaviour classes must follow a specific template (through the Awake, Start, Update and similar functions) in order to be usable by the Unity framework “managers”.

Now, let’s have a look at what a modern Entity Component System instead is.

Modern Entity Component Systems

A more advanced way of managing entities has been introduced in 2007 with the modern implementations of Entity Component System

In 2007, the team working on Operation Flashpoint: Dragon Rising experimented with ECS designs, including ones inspired by Bilas/Dungeon Siege, and Adam Martin later wrote a detailed account of ECS design[1], including definitions of core terminology and concepts. In particular, Martin’s work popularized the ideas of “Systems” as a first-class element, “Entities as ID’s”, “Components as raw Data”, and “Code stored in Systems, not in Components or Entities”.[2]

ECS Design uses Inversion of Flow control in its purer form. ECS is also a magnificent way to possibly never break the Open/Close principle when is time to add new behaviors.

the Open/Closed principle, which is also part of the SOLID principles, says:

software entities (classes, modules, functions, etc.) should be open for extension, but closed for modification

OCP is the holy grail of the perfect code design. If well adopted, it should never be needed to go back to previously created classes and change code in order to add new behaviors.

The ECS design works in this way:

    • Entities are just basically IDs.
    • Components are ValueObjects[3]. Components wrap data around an object that can be shared between Systems. Components do not have any logic to manage the data.
  • Systems are the classes where all the logic lies. Systems can access directly to list of components and execute all the logic the project needs.

I understand that the concept of data component could sound weird at first. I had problems to wrap my head around it initially as well. I guess that the key that cleared my doubts was to understand that there isn’t such a thing as a System being too small. A System can be everything that handles logic indeed, as the Presenter or the Controller handle logic in the MVP or MVC pattern respectively (if you don’t know what they are, never mind at the moment).

The really powerful aspect of this design is that the Systems must follow the Single Responsibility Rule. All the behaviors of our in-game entities are modeled inside Systems and every single behavior will have a single, well defined in terms of domain, System to manage it.

This is how we can apply the Open/Close principle without ever break it: every time we need to introduce a new specific behavior, we are forced to create a new System that simply uses components as data to execute it.

Systems are implicitly mediators as well, this is why Systems are great to let Entities communicate each other and with other Systems (through the use of the Components). However Systems are not always able to cope with all the possible communication problems just through the use of Components and for this reason Systems, that should be instantiated in the Composition Root, can have injected other dependencies (I’ll give more practical examples with the next articles).

Also, pay attention, Systems model all the logic of your framework AND game. When ECS design is used, there won’t be any implementation difference between the framework logic (like RenderingSystem, PhysicSystem and so on) and the game logic (like AliensAISystem, EnemyCollisionSystem and so on), but there will be still a sharp difference in the code separation. Framework and Game systems will still lie in different layers of the application. This introduce another very important concept: the design of our game application with multiple layers of abstraction. Using just two layers of abstraction is not enough for a complex game. Framework layer and Game layer alone are not enough. We need to make our Game Layering more granular.

All that said, I noticed that there is some confusion when it’s time to define the design adopted by Unity. Although its “managers” can be considered “systems”, they are not according the modern definition, since they cannot be defined or extended by the programmer.
Of course when is not possible to extend the “Systems” functionalities, the only way to extend the logic of our entities is to add logic inside Components. This is anyway a step forward from the classic OOP techniques. Component Oriented (I call them Entity Component, without System) frameworks like the one in Unity, push the coder to favor Composition over Inheritance, which is surely a better practice.
All the logic in Unity should be written inside focused MonoBehaviour. Every MonoBehaviour should have just one functionality, or responsibility, and they shouldn’t operate outside the GameObject itself. They should be written with modularity in mind, in such a way they can be reused independently on several GameObjects. Monobehaviours also hold data and their design clearly follows the basic concepts of OOP.
Modern design tends instead to separate data from logic. As Data, Views and Logic are separated when the Model View Controller pattern is implemented, the same happen with ECS design through Components and Systems in order to achieve better code modularity.

Before to finally shows the benefits of the ECS design approach with real code, I will explain the concept of Dependency Inversion Principle in the next article of this series.





I strongly suggest to read all my articles on the topic:

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7 years ago

Good train of thought here. Thanks for sharing.

Tommaso Lintrami (Five Fingers - Litobyte)
Tommaso Lintrami (Five Fingers - Litobyte)
5 years ago

I am enjoying a lot reading your series of articles. This way of thinking transforms a lot the way to build a game with Unity and write code in C# compared to my usual habits.
OCP, DIP, solid principles and Inversion of Flow all together in an entity system. You have done an astounding work with you ECS, really.

John P
John P
1 year ago

Several years later and Unity now has its own ECS architecture that it exposes to the user. Of course I’ve seen (well, only read about) how your library abstracts that away, but even if just sticking to using Unity’s ECS architecture I think the game architecture that devs create will begin to become much cleaner. These have been very informative articles so far, even years later. I’ve been battling with this idea of no composition root and no easy way to do DI or have IOC within Unity. It’s been really frustrating as I’m an experienced engineer but newer to… Read more »

1 year ago

Great article. I would correct a small part of it though. The MonoBehaviour in Unity is closer to the Template Method pattern than the Strategy pattern. These two patterns are very similar to each other but it’s their intention that put them apart. The Template Method pattern is for when we want to control the execution order of the code which is exactly what Unity wants to do. Another clue is that in Strategy, the class implements an interface but in Template Method, the class inherits a base class.

Sebastiano Mandalà
Sebastiano Mandalà
10 months ago
Reply to  Ben

thank you, I will take this into consideration once I start to review all my old articles!